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Albert II, Prince of Monaco

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Albert II
A photo of a balding Prince Albert, 58, smiling
Albert II in 2019
Prince of Monaco
Reign6 April 2005 – present
PredecessorRainier III
Heir apparentJacques
Ministers of state
See list
Prince Regent of Monaco
Tenure31 March – 6 April 2005[1]
MonarchRainier III
Born (1958-03-14) 14 March 1958 (age 66)
Prince's Palace of Monaco, Monaco
(m. 2011)
Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi
FatherRainier III, Prince of Monaco
MotherGrace Kelly
ReligionCatholic Church
SignatureSignature of Albert II
Military career
Allegiance Monaco
Service/branch Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince
Years of service1986–2005
(end of active service)

Albert II (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi;[2] born 14 March 1958) is Prince of Monaco, reigning since 2005.

Born at the Prince's Palace of Monaco, Albert is the second child and only son of Prince Rainier III and Princess Grace. He attended the Lycée Albert Premier before studying political science at Amherst College. In his youth, he competed in bobsleigh during Winter Olympic finals before retiring in 2002. Albert was appointed regent in March 2005 after his father fell ill, and became sovereign prince upon the latter's death a week later. Since his ascension, he has been outspoken in the field of environmentalism and an advocate of ocean conservation,[3] and adoption of renewable energy sources to tackle global climate change,[4][5] and founded Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation in 2006, to directly raise funds and initiate action for such causes and greater ecological preservation.

With assets valued in 2010 at US$1 billion, Albert owns shares in the Société des Bains de Mer, which operates Monaco's casino and other entertainment properties in the principality.[6] In July 2011, Prince Albert married South African Olympic swimmer Charlene Wittstock.[7] He has four children: Jazmin, Alexandre, Gabriella, and Jacques.

Early life[edit]

Prince Albert with his mother, Princess Grace, at the Floriade garden exhibit in Netherlands, 1972

Prince Albert was born in the Prince's Palace of Monaco on 14 March 1958, as the second child of Prince Rainier III and Princess Grace. At the time of his birth, he was heir apparent to the throne. He has Irish, German, and Monegasque ancestry. Albert was a dual citizen of both the Principality of Monaco and the United States of America by birth, before renouncing his American citizenship in his early adulthood.[8] He was baptized on 20 April 1958, by Monsignor Jean Delay, Archbishop of Marseille, in the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of Monaco.[9] His godparents were Prince Louis de Polignac and Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain.[citation needed]

Hereditary Prince[edit]

Military service[edit]

Albert graduated with distinction from the Lycée Albert Premier, in 1976. He was a camper, and later a counselor for six summers at Camp Tecumseh,[citation needed] on Lake Winnipesaukee, Moultonborough, New Hampshire, in the 1970s. He spent a year training in princely duties before enrolling at Amherst College, in Massachusetts, in 1977 as Albert Grimaldi. He joined Chi Psi Fraternity and lived in the Alpha Chi Lodge. Albert spent mid-1979 touring Europe and the Middle East with the Amherst College Glee Club, and also undertook an exchange program with the University of Bristol, at the Alfred Marshall School of Economics and Management, in 1979. He graduated in 1981 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science.[10] He speaks French, German, Italian, and English. [citation needed] From September 1981 to April 1982, Albert trained on board the French Navy's helicopter cruiser Jeanne d'Arc , attaining the rank of Ship-of-the-Line Ensign (2nd class), and is currently a reserve Lieutenant Commander.[11] From 1983 to 1985, he took training courses with companies J.P. Morgan & Co, Louis Vuitton, Rogers & Wells, and Wells, Rich and Greene in the United States and Europe, studying financial management, communication, and marketing. Since May 1993, the Prince has led the Monegasque delegation to the General Assembly of the United Nations. In 2004, the Prince presided over the delegation of Monaco in Strasbourg, France, for the official accession of the Principality onto the Council of Europe.[12]

Prince Albert's mother, Princess Grace, died at age 52 as a result of injuries sustained in a car accident in 1982. In 2017, the Prince stated during an interview that his mother's death was a traumatic event for him and his family, revealing that his father was "never the same man" after the loss.[13]

Sports career[edit]

Albert Grimaldi
Country Monaco
Sport Bobsleigh
Event(s)4-man, 2-man
Achievements and titles
Olympic finals1988, 1992, 1994, 1998, 2002

Albert was an enthusiastic sportsman, participating in cross country, javelin throwing, handball, judo, swimming, tennis, rowing, sailing, skiing, squash and fencing. He became a judo black belt in 1985.[14]

Albert competed in the bobsleigh at five consecutive Winter Olympics for Monaco, taking part in both the two-man and four-man events. In the two-man bobsleigh Albert finished 25th at the 1988 games in Calgary, 43rd at the 1992 games in Albertville, and 31st at the 1994 games. In the four-man bobsleigh Albert finished 27th in 1992, 26th at the 1994 games in Lillehammer, and 28th at both the 1998 games in Nagano and the 2002 games in Salt Lake City.[15] Albert was Monaco's flag bearer at the 1988, 1994, and 1998 Winter Olympics.[15] He also took part in the 1985 Paris–Dakar Rally, but did not complete it.[citation needed] Albert has been a member of the International Olympic Committee since 1985, and his maternal grandfather, John B. Kelly Sr., and maternal uncle, John B. Kelly Jr., were both Olympic medalists in rowing.[15] In 2017 Albert gained OLY post-nominal status under his competition name of Albert Grimaldi.[16]

On 31 March 2005, following consultation with the Crown Council of Monaco, the Palais Princier announced that Albert would take over the duties of his father as regent since Rainier was no longer able to exercise his princely functions.[17] On 6 April 2005, Rainier died and Albert succeeded him as Albert II.



The first part of Prince Albert II's enthronement as ruler of the Principality was on 12 July 2005, after the end of the three-month mourning period for his father.[citation needed] A morning Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral presided over by the Archbishop of Monaco, the Most Reverend Bernard Barsi, formally marked the beginning of his reign.[18] Afterward, Albert returned to the Palace to host a garden party for 7,000 Monégasques born in the principality. In the courtyard, the Prince was presented with two keys of the city as a symbol of his investiture, and subsequently gave a speech.[19] The evening ended with a fireworks display on the waterfront.[18]

The second part of his investiture took place on 19 November 2005. Albert was enthroned at Saint Nicholas Cathedral.[20] The Princely family was in attendance, including his elder sister, Princess Caroline with her husband Ernst, Prince of Hanover and three of her four children, Andrea, Pierre and Charlotte; as well as his younger sister Princess Stéphanie, his paternal aunt Princess Antoinette, Baroness of Massy, his godson, Jean-Léonard Taubert de Massy, and his cousin Elisabeth-Anne de Massy. Royalty from 16 delegations were present for the festivities throughout the country. The evening ended with a dedicated performance at the Opéra de Monte-Carlo.[20]

Succession issues[edit]

As Rainier III's health declined, Albert's lack of legitimate children became a matter of public and political concern owing to the legal and international consequences. Had Prince Albert succeeded his father and died without lawful heirs, it would have triggered Article 3 of the 1918 Franco-Monegasque Treaty, according to which the Principality of Monaco would become a protectorate of the French Republic.[21] Prior to 2002, Monaco's constitution stipulated that only the last reigning prince's "direct and legitimate" descendants could inherit the crown.[citation needed]

On 2 April 2002, Monaco promulgated Princely Law 1.249, which provides that if a reigning prince dies without surviving legitimate issue, the throne passes to his legitimate siblings and their legitimate descendants of both sexes, according to the principle of male-preference primogeniture.[22] Following Albert's accession, this law took full effect in 2005 when ratified by France, pursuant to the Franco-Monégasque Treaty regulating relations between the Principality and its neighbour. Prince Albert's sisters and their legitimate children thereby retained the right to inherit the Monegasque throne, which they would have otherwise lost upon the death of Prince Rainier.[citation needed]

Under the current constitution, neither Jazmin nor Alexandre are in the line of succession to the Monegasque throne as they are not Prince Albert II's legitimate children, and he emphasised their ineligibility to inherit the throne in statements confirming his paternity.[23][24] Monegasque law stipulates that any non-adulterine illegitimate child is legitimised by the eventual marriage of his/her parents, thereupon obtaining the rights to which that child would have been entitled if born in lawful marriage. Thus Alexandre would have become Monaco's heir apparent under current law if Albert were to marry Alexandre's mother. In a 2005 exchange with American reporter Larry King, Albert stated that this would not happen.[25]

Prior to the birth of Princess Gabriella and Prince Jacques, Prince Albert's elder sister, Caroline, Princess of Hanover, was heir presumptive and, according to the Grimaldi house law, bore the traditional title of Hereditary Princess of Monaco.[26] Following their births, she is now third in line.[citation needed]

Princely activities[edit]

The Prince of Monaco visiting the Senate of Poland in 2012

In the early years of his reign, Prince Albert oversaw multiple judicial and legal reforms, including the regulation of custody, protections of the privacy of the individual in the face of technological growth, freedom of the press, legislative gender equality, and the protection of children's rights and disabled students.[11] In July 2005, in echo of Albert I, his great-great-grandfather, he travelled to Spitsbergen, Norway. During this trip, he visited the glaciers Lilliehöökbreen and Monacobreen. Prince Albert also engaged in a Russian Arctic expedition, reaching the North Pole on Easter, 16 April 2006.[23] He is the first incumbent head of state to have reached the North Pole.[citation needed]

Prince Albert II with Russian President Vladimir Putin in October 2013.

Since his ascension, the Prince has overseen the construction of various community facilities, including social housing, railway infrastructure, educational institutes for the hospitality industry, and secondary education. He currently heads an initiative to promote ethical economic activity, criminal liability, the adopting of systems to combat money laundering and organized crime, and the introduction of tax fraud into Monegasque criminal law.[11] In 2006, Prince Albert created the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation, which continues Monaco's commitment to supporting sustainable and ethical projects around the world. The foundation's focus has three main objectives: climate change and renewable energy development, combating the loss of biodiversity, and improving universal access to clean water.[27] In July 2011, Albert married South African Olympic swimmer Charlene Wittstock.[28]

On 27 August 2015, Prince Albert apologized for Monaco's role in facilitating the deportation of a total of 90 Jews and resistance fighters to the Nazis in 1942, of whom only nine survived. "We committed the irreparable in handing over to the neighboring authorities women, men, and a child who had taken refuge with us to escape the persecutions they had suffered in France," Albert said at a ceremony in which a monument to the victims was unveiled at the Monaco Cemetery. "In distress, they came specifically to take shelter with us, thinking they would find neutrality."[29]

Between 2006 and 2022, Albert's chief of cabinet was Georges Lisimachio.[30] In June 2023, Albert dismissed Claude Palmero, the manager of the Prince of Monaco's assets who had been serving for over two decades.[31] Albert said of the decision, "I exercised my right to choose the asset manager of my choice. Events have shown how much this decision was the right one." Palmero proceeded to sue Albert for €1 million and leaked information of the palace's spending to the French media.[32]

Personal life[edit]

In 2016, Albert purchased Princess Grace's childhood home in East Falls, Philadelphia, which was originally built by her grandfather Jack Kelly. Upon acquiring it, he stated the house might be used as a museum space or as offices for the Princess Grace Foundation.[33] Prince Albert does not have direct ownership of the Prince's Palace, but does possess personal homes in both La Turbie[34] and Marchais.[35]

Albert, a well-known automotive enthusiast, owns vehicles like the BMW Hydrogen 7,[36] the Lexus LS 600h,[37] the Lexus RX 400h,[37] and the Toyota Prius PHV.[37][38] He also owns a Dassault Aviation Falcon 7X, a 14-passenger leisure jet, currently stationed at Nice Côte d'Azur Airport.[39][40]

Albert is close friends with the artist Nall and owns some of his works.[41]

On 19 March 2020, amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe, it was announced that Albert II had tested positive for COVID-19,[42] making him the first monarch and head of state to have contracted COVID-19.[43] It was reported that he had begun to self-quarantine from within his apartment, performing his work and duties from there.[42] On 31 March, it was announced that he had made a full recovery.[44] In April 2022, he tested positive for COVID-19 for the second time and observed a brief period of self-isolation.[45]

In 2021, Raphaël Domjan became the first pilot of an electric plane flight with a head of state. On 14 September 2021, they took off with a Pipistrel Velis128 operated by Elektropostal from Nice airport in France with Albert II and they flew over Monaco. The plane flew for 30 minutes at a maximum altitude of 900 feet.[46]

Paternity claims[edit]

  • Tamara Rotolo — Prince Albert was reportedly listed as the father of Jazmin Grace Grimaldi on her birth certificate, registered in Riverside County, California, United States. The case went to trial in 1993 and was eventually dismissed by Superior Court Judge Graham Anderson Cribbs, who refused jurisdiction and found that there was "insufficient connection between [Prince Hereditary] Albert and the State of California to justify hearing a suit [in California]",[47] justifying the statements of the Prince's lawyer. On 31 May 2006, after a DNA test confirmed the child's parentage, Albert admitted, via statement from his lawyer, that he is Jazmin's father.
  • Nicole Coste — In May 2005, a former Air France flight attendant from Togo claimed that her youngest son, born Éric Alexandre Stéphane Tossoukpé on 24 August 2003 in Paris, France,[48][49] whom she called Alexandre Coste, was Prince Albert's child, and stated that his parentage had been proven by DNA tests requested by the Monegasque government. She further declared that the Prince had signed a notarised certificate confirming paternity, which she had not received a copy of. The Paris Match published a ten-page interview with Coste, including photographs of Albert holding and feeding the child. Coste also told the publication that she was living in the Prince's Paris apartment, and receiving an allowance from him, while pretending to be the girlfriend of one of his friends in order to maintain discretion. She also stated that the prince had previously last seen the boy in February 2005. The prince's lawyer, Thierry Lacoste, announced that as a result of the international publicity over these revelations, Prince Albert was suing the Daily Mail, Bunte, and Paris Match for privacy violations. On 6 July 2005, a few days before he was enthroned on 12 July, the Prince officially confirmed via his lawyer Lacoste that Alexandre was his biological son.[24] He calls himself Alexandre Grimaldi.[50]
  • Bea Fiedler — In a suit filed around January 1989,[51] a German model and former adult film actress claimed her son Daniel was the prince's child from an October 1986 tryst.[52] A judge reportedly dismissed the suit, despite the fact that Prince Albert had submitted a DNA sample to be tested, as the genetic sample had not been rendered in front of a witness. Fiedler rejected the DNA blood sample as truly belonging to the prince.[53][54]
  • In December 2020, a Brazilian woman filed a paternity suit against Albert, claiming that he had fathered a child with her during his relationship with Charlene. Albert's lawyer described the claim as a 'hoax'.[55]


Prince Albert and Wittstock at the "Cinema Against AIDS" Gala with Karl Lagerfeld

Prince Albert met South African swimmer Charlene Wittstock in 2000 at the Mare Nostrum swimming meet in Monaco.[28] They made their public debut as a couple at the opening ceremony of the 2006 Winter Olympics.[56] She accompanied him to the weddings of the Crown Princess of Sweden in 2010 and of the Duke of Cambridge in 2011.

Their engagement was announced by the palace on 10 June 2010. The wedding was originally scheduled for 8 and 9 July 2011, but was moved forward to prevent a conflict with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) meeting in Durban on 5–9 July, which they both attended. The couple had invited members of the IOC, including president Jacques Rogge, to their wedding.[57]

The couple were married in a civil ceremony on 1 July 2011 in the Throne Room of the Prince's Palace.[56] The religious ceremony took place in the courtyard of the palace on 2 July, and was presided over by Archbishop Bernard Barsi.[56] The couple honeymooned in South Africa, where they stayed in separate hotels,[58] and Mozambique.

Prince Albert and Princess Charlene had twins, Princess Gabriella, Countess of Carladès, and Jacques, Hereditary Prince of Monaco, on 10 December 2014. Jacques is the heir apparent to the throne.[59]

Charity work and patronages[edit]

Albert rides through a river on a guided tour in the Shoshone National Forest, September 2013

Albert holds affiliations and patronages within numerous philanthropic organizations. He is the vice-chairman of the Princess Grace Foundation-USA, an American charity founded in 1982, after his mother's death, which supports emerging artists in theatre, dance, and film, as Princess Grace did in her lifetime.[citation needed] Albert holds patronages with AS Monaco.[citation needed], the World Olympians Association,[60] the Monte-Carlo Rolex Masters, the Peace and Sport Organization, and Junior Chamber International. He holds official and honorary presidencies within the Monaco Red Cross, Comité Olympique Monégasque, Association Mondiale des Amis de l'Enfance, The Automobile Club de Monaco, The Festival de Télévision de Monte-Carlo, and Jumping International de Monte Carlo. Albert is affiliated with International Paralympic Committee, Junior Chamber International, and Art of the Olympians. Albert is also a global adviser to Orphans International.

Environmental Interests[edit]

In 2001, at the 36th Congress of the Mediterranean Science Commission held in the Principality, the CIESM Member States unanimously elected Monaco in the person of Prince Albert to the presidence of the commission.[11]

The year 2007 was declared as (International) Year of the Dolphin by the United Nations and United Nations Environment Programme.[61] Prince Albert served as the International Patron of the "Year of the Dolphin", saying "The Year of the Dolphin gives me the opportunity to renew my firm commitment towards protecting marine biodiversity. With this strong initiative we can make a difference to save these fascinating marine mammals from the brink of extinction."[citation needed]

The Zoological Garden of Monaco (Jardin Animalier) was founded by Prince Rainier in 1954. Rainier was petitioned unsuccessfully for many years by Virginia McKenna, founder of the Born Free Foundation, to release a pair of leopards at the zoo.[62] Prince Albert met McKenna after his accession to the throne, and agreed to release the leopards as well the zoo's hippo and camel.[citation needed] He intends to convert the Jardin into a zoo for children.[62]

In January 2009, Prince Albert left for a month-long expedition to Antarctica, where he visited 26 scientific outposts and met with climate-change experts in an attempt to learn more about the impact of global warming on the continent.[63] During the trip, he stopped at the South Pole, making him the only incumbent head of state to have visited both poles.[64][65]

Prince Albert II at the 5th Global Conference on Oceans, Coasts and Islands at UNESCO Paris, 2010

In June 2009, Prince Albert co-authored an op-ed published in The Wall Street Journal with Charles Clover, the author of The End of the Line, a book about overfishing and ocean conservation issues that had recently been made into a documentary by Rupert Murray. In the piece, Prince Albert and Clover note that bluefin tuna have been severely overfished in the Mediterranean, and decry the common European Union practice of awarding inflated quotas to bluefin fleets.[66] Albert also announced that Monaco would seek to award endangered species status to the Mediterranean bluefin, Thunnus thynnus, (also called the Northern bluefin) under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). This was the first time a nation had called for the inclusion of Mediterranean bluefin under CITES since Sweden[66] at the 1992 CITES Conference, which was vehemently opposed by Japan who eventually threatened retaliation through trade barriers.[67] Sweden withdrew its proposal.

On 16 July 2009, France declared that it too would seek to have Mediterranean bluefin listed as an endangered species.[68] Only hours later, the United Kingdom followed suit.[69]

On 19 September 2017, Prince Albert expressed his great interest for the preliminary draft of the Global Pact for the Environment presented by French President Emmanuel Macron in the context of the 72nd session of the United Nations General Assembly.[70] He added that he will be very attentive to the future of this Pact, which he qualified as a "universal, legally binding agreement, which recognises the right of future generations to sustainable development."[70]

After having met Torres Strait Islander artist and activist Alick Tipoti in 2016, Prince Albert went to stay with his family on Badu Island, and collaborated with him on the film Alick and Albert (2021), a feature-length documentary film about the future of the oceans, and how climate change affects people in the Torres Strait Islands as well as Monaco.[71][72][73] The film had its world premiere at the Brisbane International Film Festival in October 2021.[74]

On 12 February 2020, Albert and Victor Vescovo reached the bottom of Calypso Deep, a depth of 16,762 ft, in a submarine. They were only the second team to do so after a French group in 1965.[75]

Titles, styles, honours and arms[edit]

Styles of
Albert II
Reference styleHis Serene Highness
Spoken styleYour Serene Highness

Titles and styles[edit]

  • 14 March 1958 – 16 March 1958: His Serene Highness The Hereditary Prince of Monaco
  • 16 March 1958 – 6 April 2005: His Serene Highness The Hereditary Prince of Monaco, Marquis of Baux[76]
  • 31 March – 6 April 2005: His Serene Highness The Prince Regent of Monaco[1]
  • 6 April 2005 – present: His Serene Highness The Prince of Monaco

Military appointments[edit]


National orders[edit]

Foreign orders[edit]

Dynastic orders[edit]

Other awards[edit]

In 1996, Prince Albert received the Eagle Award from the United States Sports Academy. The Eagle Award is the academy's highest international honor and was awarded to Prince Albert for his significant contributions in promoting international harmony, peace and goodwill through the effective use of sport.[107]

On 23 October 2009, Prince Albert was awarded the Roger Revelle Prize for his efforts to protect the environment and to promote scientific research.[108] This award was given to Prince Albert by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California.[109] Prince Albert is the second recipient of this prize.[110]

In October 2017, Prince Albert received the Lowell Thomas Award from The Explorers Club, a non-profit group that promotes scientific exploration. The award is presented by the president of the club on special occasions to groups of outstanding explorers. The Club cited Prince Albert's dedication to the protection of the environment, commemorating his status as the first head of state to reach both the North and South poles.[111]

On 14 October 2019 at the Comenius University in Bratislava, he received the honorary title "doctor honoris causa" for activities in the field of protection of natural and cultural heritage within his efforts to combat climate change.[citation needed]

Commemorative coins[edit]

As Monaco's head of state, Prince Albert II is depicted on both standard-issue and collector's coins, such as the €5 silver Prince Albert II commemorative coin, the first commemorative coin with his effigy, minted in 2008. On the obverse, the prince is depicted in profile with his name on the top of the coin. On the reverse, the Grimaldi coat of arms appears; around it, the words "Principauté de Monaco" (Principality of Monaco) also appear along with the nominal monetary value of the coin.[112]

Arms and emblems[edit]

Coat of arms of Prince Albert II
of Monaco

Monogram of
Prince Albert II

Dual cypher of Prince Albert
and Princess Charlene

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Monaco, Principauté de. "Sommaire du Journal No. 7698 du 8 avril 2005". journaldemonaco.gouv.mc (in French). Retrieved 5 February 2023..
  2. ^ Albert II, prince of Monaco at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  3. ^ "Monaco's Prince Albert II: Oceans are a 'family heritage,' with little time to save them". Los Angeles Times. 13 February 2020. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  4. ^ Bryer, Tania; Wednesday, Rachael Revesz Published; XXX, 31 May 2019 12:00 AM ETUpdated. "Prince Albert II: The monarch talks climate change and his legacy". www.cnbc.com. Retrieved 25 September 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ "Press Conference on Climate Change by Prince Albert II of Monaco | Meetings Coverage and Press Releases". www.un.org. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  6. ^ "In Pictures: The World's Richest Royals – Prince Albert II, Monaco". Forbes. 7 July 2010.
  7. ^ "Prince Albert of Monaco – Fast Facts". CNN. 20 March 2014.
  8. ^ Thomas, Zoe (13 April 2019). "Could Harry and Meghan's child pay US taxes?". BBC.
  9. ^ André, Véronique (2014). Palais de Monaco : À la table des princes (in French). Hachette Pratique. p. 160. ISBN 978-2012317765.
  10. ^ "H.S.H. Prince Albert, Alexandre, Louis, Pierre Sovereign Prince of Monaco". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development. Retrieved 15 May 2024.
  11. ^ a b c d "H.S.H. PRINCE ALBERT II". Palais Princier de Monaco. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  12. ^ "Albert of Monaco signs the instrument of accession to the Council of Europe (Strasbourg, 5 October 2004)". Centre virtuel de la connaissance sur l’Europe (CVCE). Retrieved 15 May 2024.
  13. ^ "Prince Albert II: Tragic death of mom Grace Kelly". YouTube. 6 September 2017. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  14. ^ "Factbox: Monaco's Prince Albert to marry". Reuters. 29 June 2011.
  15. ^ a b c "Albert, Prince Grimaldi profile". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  16. ^ "WOA Patron HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco joins OLY ranks". olympians.org. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  17. ^ Son of ailing Prince Rainier takes over duties, MSNBC, 31 March 2005. Accessed 31 May 2008.
  18. ^ a b Willsher, Kim (13 July 2005). "Albert takes the Monaco crown". The Guardian. theguardian.com. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  19. ^ "Investiture speech H.S.H. Prince Albert IInd of Monaco, July 12th, 2005". Archived from the original on 12 November 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  20. ^ a b "Prince Albert's Monaco enthronement complete". ABC News. 19 November 2005. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  21. ^ United Nations Treaty Series, 1975, vol. 981, Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1918. P. 360. "Should the throne become vacant, particularly for lack of a direct or adoptive heir, the territory of Monaco shall form, under the protectorate of France, an autonomous state under the name of the State of Monaco," United Nations translation.
  22. ^ The Constitution (2002)
  23. ^ a b "Albert, à nouveau père". Le Figaro. France. 20 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
  24. ^ a b Monaco prince admits love child, BBC News, 6 July 2005. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
  25. ^ Larry King Live. Interview with Prince Albert II. 25 October 2005. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  26. ^ The House Laws
  27. ^ Prince Albert. Fpa2.com. Retrieved on 7 May 2014.
  28. ^ a b "Monaco's Prince Albert to marry Charlene Wittstock". Gmanews.tv. Associated Press. 23 June 2010. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
  29. ^ Williams, Carol J. (27 August 2015). "More than seven decades later, Monaco apologizes for deporting Jews". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  30. ^ "Laurent Anselmi, bras droit du Prince de Monaco". Les Echos (in French). 17 January 2022. Retrieved 13 September 2022.
  31. ^ Incari, Sarah (7 June 2023). "Claude Palmero, Administrateur des Biens du Prince, démis de ses fonctions". Monaco Tribune. Retrieved 24 March 2024.
  32. ^ Henley, Jon (27 January 2024). "'€600k to pay off her overdraft': aide lifts lid on Monaco royals' lavish spending". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 March 2024.
  33. ^ Mikelbank, Peter. "Prince Albert Buys Mom Princess Grace's Childhood Home in Philadelphia". PEOPLE. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  34. ^ Charlène de Monaco: pour l'amour des enfants. Gala.fr. 29 September 2011.
  35. ^ (in French) Le château des Grimaldi en Picardie. Journaldunet.com. 12 January 2011.
  36. ^ Joseph, Noah (9 April 2008). "Crown Jewel: Prince Albert II of Monaco gets a BMW Hydrogen 7". Autoblog. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
  37. ^ a b c "Le Prince Albert de Monaco, 1er utilisateur de la Lexus LS 600h". Ecologie.caradisiac.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  38. ^ "Europe's first production Prius PHV Delivered to H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco". Toyota Motors. 9 April 2012. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
  39. ^ New jet for Prince Albert II Archived 24 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Rivieratimes.com (30 April 2014). Retrieved on 7 May 2014.
  40. ^ Le prince Albert de Monaco s'offre un Falcon 7X et un hangar flambant neuf à Nice, Aeronautique.ma. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  41. ^ Foreman, Liza (6 October 2009). "In France, an Artist's Retreat". The New York Times.
  42. ^ a b "Prince Albert of Monaco tests positive for COVID-19 coronavirus". euronews. 19 March 2020.
  43. ^ Mack, David (19 March 2020). "Prince Albert II Of Monaco Is The First Head Of State To Announce A COVID-19 Diagnosis". Buzzfeed News. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  44. ^ Roberto, Melissa (April 2020). "Prince Albert recovers from coronavirus: 'He is healed and healthy'". Fox News. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  45. ^ Mikelbank, Peter; Hill, Erin (13 April 2022). "Prince Albert of Monaco Has COVID-19 for Second Time After Speaking Out on His Long Recovery". People. Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  46. ^ "PHOTOS. Prince Albert II becomes the first Head of State to fly 100% electric". 15 September 2021. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  47. ^ Evening Standard article, 24 March 1993, page 20
  48. ^ Willsher, Kim (5 July 2005). "Prince Albert to acknowledge toddler son after affair made public". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  49. ^ "Alexandre Coste". V.I.P.E.D.I.A.
  50. ^ Article by Peter Mikelbank 22 August 2023 in People
  51. ^ Norwich, William (26 January 1989). "Whait's in the Heir for the Rich Kids?". New York Daily News. p. 42.
  52. ^ "Drittes Kind für Prinz Albert?". The Tribune. 25 August 2006. p. Y7.
  53. ^ "Bea in His Bonnet, The Daily Telegraph, 29 July 1987.
  54. ^ Sunday Mirror, 8 March 1998, pp. 1+
  55. ^ Bickerstaff, Isaac (14 March 2022). "A timeline of Princess Charlene and Prince Albert of Monaco's relationship". Tatler. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  56. ^ a b c "Monaco's Prince Albert weds South African Charlene Wittstock". BBC News. 1 July 2011. Archived from the original on 30 June 2011.
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External links[edit]

Albert II, Prince of Monaco
Born: 14 March 1958
Regnal titles
Preceded by Prince of Monaco
Heir apparent:
Monegasque royalty
Preceded by Hereditary Prince of Monaco
Succeeded by
Preceded by Duke of Valentinois¹
(de facto)

Marquis of Baux
Succeeded by
Olympic Games
Preceded by Flagbearer for  Monaco
1988, 1992, 1994
Succeeded by
Notes and references
1. Title extinct in 1949.